Contributors

USMLE Consult was created in part because Elsevier saw the need for a high-quality USMLE practice test bank that includes content from experts in their fields. We reached out to our most popular authors and recruited them to write questions, review questions, or provide content for High-yield Hits.

USMLE Consult collects statistics on every question we use so we can gauge how a question "performs." If too many users are getting a question correct, we know that it's not challenging enough and we revise or replace it. If not enough students are getting a question correct, we review it to make sure that we have been clear with our wording and options. Our goal is to use a balanced question bank, one with some difficult, some medium, and some easier questions, just like the actual USMLEs.

Practice questions were written by students, residents, consultants, professors, physicians, program directors, and chiefs. Every question goes through two review processes. We strive to make sure that our options are plausible and our vignettes make medical sense. We welcome your feedback and suggestions: usmleconsult.editorial@elsevier.com

Elsevier has many opportunities for you to get involved and earn cash and book credit!

• Review product proposals, chapters, content, and books
• Write original USMLE-style questions
• Update existing USMLE-style questions
• Review USMLE-style questions for content and style
• Designate High-Yield Hits for USMLE-style questions

Send an email to usmle-get-involved@elsevier.com to get more information on individual opportunities and to be added to our reviewer database.

Jeffrey K. Actor, PhD Actors Inetgrated
Jeffrey K. Actor, PhD
Professor, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine,
Medical Immunology Course Director, MSI,
University of Texas Medical School at Houston,
Houston, Texas, USA
George M. Brenner, PhD Brenners Pharmacology Brenners Pharmacology Flashcards
George M. Brenner, PhD
Professor Emeritus of Pharmacology,
Oklahoma State University Center for Health Sciences,
Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA
Costanzo Physiology
Linda S. Costanzo, PhD
Professor of Physiology
Assistant Dean for Pre-Clinical Medical Education
Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine
Richmond, Virginia, USA
Richard Drake, PhD Drakes Gray's Anatomy for Students
Richard Drake, PhD
Director of Anatomy
Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine
The Cleveland Clinic
Cleveland, Ohio, USA
Edward Goljan, MD Goljans Rapid Review Laboratory Testing in Clincal Medicine Goljans Rapid Review Pathology
Edward Goljan, MD
Professor of Pathology
Oklahoma State University
Center for Health Sciences and College of Osteopathic Medicine
Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA
Edward C. Klatt, MD Klatts Review of Pathology Klatts Pathology Flash Cards
Edward C. Klatt, MD
Professor of Pathology
Department of Biomedical Sciences
Director of Medical Education Development and Informatics
Mercer University School of Medicine
Macon, Georgia, USA
Theodore X. O'Connor, MD O'Connor Instant Workups A Clinical Guide Obstetric and Gynecological Care O'Connor Instant Workups A Clinical Guide to Pediatrics O'Connor USMLE Step 2 Secrets O'Connor Instant Workups A Clinical Guide to Medicine O'Connor Case Based Simulation and Review for USMLE STEP 2 CS
Theodore X. O'Connor, MD
Residency Program Director
Family Medicine Residency Program
Kaiser Permanente Woodland Hills
Woodland Hills, California, USA

Assistant Clinical Professor
Department of Family Medicine
David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA
Los Angeles, California, USA
John W. Pelley, PhD Pelleys Integrated Biochemistry Pelleys Rapid Review Biochemistry
John W. Pelley, PhD
Department of Cell Biology and Biochemistry
Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center School of Medicine
Lubbock, Texas, USA
Kenneth S Rosenthal, PhD Rosenthal Rapid Review Microbiology and Immunology Rosenthal Medical Microbiology Flash Cards
Kenneth S Rosenthal, PhD
Professor of Microbiology, Immunology and Biochemistry
and Co-course Director Infection and Immunity
Northeastern Ohio Universities Colleges of Medicine and Pharmacy,
Rootstown, Ohio, USA

Adjunct Professor and Co-course Director Microbiology and Infection
Herbert Wertheim College of Medicine at Florida International University
Miami, Florida, USA
Linda R Adkison, PhD
Professor of Genetics and Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology,
Mercer University School of Medicine,
Macon, GA, USA
Max Bayard, MD
Associate Professor and Program Director,
Department of Family Medicine East,
Tennessee State University James H Quillen College of Medicine,
Johnson City, TN, USA
Nitin Bhanot, MD
Infectious Diseases Fellow,
Department of Medicine,
Maimonides Medical Center,
Brooklyn, NY, USA
Shivayogi Bhusnurmath, MD, FRCPath
Chair, Pathology,
Associate Dean, Basic and Allied Health Sciences,
St George's University School of Medicine,
Grenada, West Indies
Richard H Bost, PhD, ABPP, BCIAC
Associate Professor of Behavioral Sciences,
Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences,
Oklahoma State University College of Osteopathic Medicine,
Tulsa, OK, USA
Navtej S Brar, DO
Resident Physician,
Department of Medicine,
Lenox Hill Hospital,
New York, NY, USA
Dirk Burkhardt, MD, MSc, PhD
Professor of Neuroscience,
Department of Physiology and Neuroscience,
St George's University School of Medicine,
Grenada, West Indies
Ilseung Cho, MD
Fellow, Division of Gastroenterology,
New York University Medical Center,
New York, NY, USA
Anthony F Chu, MD
Cardiology Consultant,
Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania,
Philadelphia, PA, USA
Rohit Divekar, MD
Graduate Research Assistant,
Molecular Microbiology and Immunology,
University of Missouri - Columbia,
Columbia, MO, USA
Rebecca L. Cox, PhD
Medical Microbiology Course Director,
Microbiology and Molecular Genetics,
University of Texas Health Science Center,
Houston, TX, USA
Timothy M Farrell, MD
Associate Professor of Surgery,
University of North Carolina,
Chapel Hill, NC, USA
James L Fishback, MD
Director of Basic Science Curriculum,
Department of Pathology and Lab Medicine,
University of Kansas School of Medicine,
Kansas City, KS, USA
Matthew Fitz, MD
Assistant Professor,
Loyola University Medical Center,
Maywood, IL, USA
John Fletcher, MD
Private Consultant,
Clayton, MO, USA
Tracy Foose, MD
Postdoctoral Residency Fellow - Psychiatry,
Columbia University,
New York, NY, USA
Tracy Foose, MD
Physician,
New York Presbyterian Healthcare Medical Centers,
New York, NY, USA
Matthew F Fox, MD
Resident,
University of Virginia,
Charlottesville, VA, USA
Corey S. Frucht, MS
3rd Year Student,
Yale University,
New Haven, CT, USA
Rondi B. Gelbard, MD
Resident, Department of General Surgery
New York Presbyterian Hospital
Columbia University Medical Center
New York, NY, USA
Nabhan K. Islam, MD, BMSc
Brampton, ON, Canada
Aurel Iuga, MD
Research Fellow,
Department of Dermatology,
Massachusetts General Hospital,
Charlestown, MA, USA
Jon Kibble, PhD
Associate Professor of Physiology,
Memorial University of Newfoundland,
Faculty of Medicine,
Health Sciences Centre,
St John's, NL, Canada
Kevin Kitagawa, MD
Resident Physician, Pathology,
University of Hawaii, John A. Burns School of Medicine,
Honolulu, HI, USA
Kate Lally, MD
Internal Medicine,
University of Pennsylvania,
Philadelphia, PA, USA
Amy B Levine, MD
Associate Professor,
Director, 3rd Year Clerkship in Obstetrics and Gynecology,
Drexel University College of Medicine,
Philadelphia, PA, USA
David Levy, BS
Medical Student,
University of Nebraska Medical Center,
Omaha, NE, USA
N Anthony Moore, PhD
Professor of Anatomy,
University of Mississippi Medical Center,
Jackson, MS, USA
Shannon B Moss, PhD
Faculty, Director of Behavioral Medicine,
Baylor Family Medicine Residency at Garland,
Garland, TX, USA
Mayur K Movalia, MD
Hematopathology Fellow,
Hartford Hospital,
Hartford, CT, USA
Thomas Myers, MD
Resident,
Department of Orthopedic Surgery,
University of Pittsburgh,
Pittsburgh, PA, USA
Rajasree J Nair, MD
Faculty, Director of Curriculum,
Baylor Family Medicine Residency at Garland,
Garland, TX, USA
Jatinder Narang, MD
Alumnus,
St. George's University School of Medicine,
Grenada, West Indies
Michael Nauss, MD
Resident,
Department of Emergency Medicine,
University of Cincinnati,
Cincinnati, OH, USA
James M Norton, PhD
Professor of Physiology, Department of Physiology,
University of New England College of Osteopathic Medicine,
Biddeford, NE, USA
Thomas L Pazdernik, PhD
Professor of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics,
Course Director, Medical Pharmacology,
University of Kansas Medical Center,
Kansas City, KS, USA
Michael H Pollak, PhD
Professor of Behavioral Sciences,
Oklahoma State University Center for Health Sciences,
Tulsa, OK, USA
Rachel Powers, MD
1st Year Resident - Psychiatry,
Thomas Jefferson University,
Philadelphia, PA, USA
Joshua E Lane, MD
Clinical Assistant Professor,
Departments of Medicine (Dermatology) and Surgery,
Mercer University School of Medicine,
Macon, GA, USA

and

Clinical Assistant Professor,
Department of Dermatology,
Emory University School of Medicine,
Atlanta, GA, USA

and

Clinical Instructor,
Division of Dermatology, Department of Medicine,
The Medical College of Georgia,
Augusta, GA, USA
Sharma S Prabhakar, MD, MBA, FASN
Chief, Division of Nephrology and Hypertension,
Associate Professor - Medicine and Physiology,
Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center,
Lubbock, TX, USA
Susan K Redwood, PhD
Professor of Behavioral Sciences,
Oklahoma State University Center for Health Sciences,
College of Osteopathic Medicine, Tulsa, OK, USA
Susan Mara Richman, MD
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology,
Yale University School of Medicine,
New Haven, CT, USA
William A Roy, PT, PhD
Associate Professor of Basic Sciences,
Touro University - Nevada,
Henderson, Nevada, USA
Lori B Siegel MD, FACP, FACR
Professor of Medicine,
The Chicago Medical School,
North Chicago, IL, USA
Anne C Simon, DO
Family Medicine,
Baylor Medical Center Garland,
Garland, TX, USA
Janet D Smith, PhD
Associate Professor, Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy,
Drexel University College of Medicine,
Philadelphia, PA, USA
Craig W Stevens, PhD
Professor of Pharmacology,
Department of Pharmacology and Physiology,
OSU-Center for Health Sciences,
College of Osteopathic Medicine,
Tulsa, OK, USA
Vivian M Stevens, PhD
Professor, Department of Behavioral Sciences,
Oklahoma State University Center for Health Sciences,
College of Osteopathic Medicine,
Tulsa, OK, USA
Carryl Tan Oei, DO
Resident Physician,
Family Medicine,
Baylor Family Medicine at Garland,
Garland, TX, USA
Louise S Thai, MD
Course Director, Molecular Microbiology and Immunology,
Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology,
University of Missouri,
Columbia, MO, USA
Stephen R Thompson, MD, MEd
Resident, Department of Orthopedics,
University of Maryland,
Baltimore, MD, USA
Anthony Vallarino, DO
Resident Physician,
Family Medicine,
Baylor Family Medicine at Garland,
Garland, TX, USA
Timothy Wong, MD
Chief Medical Resident,
Department of Medicine,
New York University,
Bellevue Hospital Center,
New York, NY, USA
Alexander S Zusman, MD
1st Year Resident - Pediatrics,
University of California,
San Francisco, CA, USA
Timothy Horita, MD
Program Director, Family Medicine
Residency Program,
Kaiser Permanente,
Woodland Hills, CA, USA

and

Clinical Assistant Professor,
Department of Family Medicine,
David Geffen School of Medicine, UCLA,
Los Angeles, CA, USA
James W Lomax, MD
Associate Chairman and Director of Educational Programs,
Karl Menninger Chair in Psychiatry Education,
Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences,
Baylor College of Medicine,
Houston, TX, USA
Bradley J Benson, MD, FACP
Assistant Professor of Internal Medicine and Pediatrics,
Director of Medicine-Pediatrics Residency Program,
University of Minnesota Medical School,
Minneapolis, MN, USA
Mitchell L Berk, PhD
Professor, Department of Anatomy and Pathology,
Joan C Edwards School of Medicine,
Marshall University,
Huntington, WV, USA
Robert A Bloodgood, PhD
Professor of Cell Biology,
Department of Cell Biology,
University of Virginia School of Medicine,
Charlottesville, VA, USA
Dirk Burkhardt, MD, MSc, PhD
Professor of Neuroscience,
Department of Physiology and Neuroscience,
St. George's University,
Grenada, West Indies
Maria T Caserta, MD, PhD
Associate Director of the Memory Center
and Associate Professor,
Department of Psychiatry,
University of Chicago,
Chicago, IL, USA
Ilseung Cho, MD
Fellow, Division of Gastroenterology,
New York University Medical Center,
New York, NY, USA
Rebecca L Cox, PhD
Medical Microbiology Course Director,
Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics,
University of Texas Health Science Center-Houston,
Houston, TX, USA
Mfon S Cyrus-David, MBBS, MS
Assistant Professor of Cancer Epidemiology, Prevention & Control,
Program Director, Cancer Epidemiology & Interventions Program,
Chronic Disease Prevention & Control Research Center,
Baylor College of Medicine,
Houston, TX, USA
Kim-Lan Czelusta, MD
Associate Director of Residency Education,
Menninger Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences,
Baylor College of Medicine,
Houston, TX, USA
Pamela L Derstine, PhD
Senior Project Manager,
Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education,
Chicago, IL, USA
Judah Fierstein, MD
Attending, Emergency Department,
Jersey City Medical Center,
Jersey City, NJ, USA
Jodi Freidman, MD
Associate Clinical Professor of Medicine,
UCLA Department of Medicine,
Los Angeles, CA, USA
Stanley Goldfarb, MD, FACP
Professor of Medicine,
Associate Dean for Curriculum,
University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine,
Philadelphia, PA, USA
Richard Hansford, BSc, PhD
Chair and Professor of Biochemistry,
St. George's University School of Medicine,
Grenada, West Indies
C Philip Hudson, MD
Assistant Professor-Associate Residency Director,
Director, FM Ward Service,
Department of Family and Preventive Medicine,
University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences
Little Rock, AR, USA
Jon Kibble, PhD
Associate Professor of Physiology,
Memorial University of Newfoundland,
Faculty of Medicine,
Health Sciences Centre,
St John's, NL, Canada
Thomas C King, MD, PhD
Associate Professor,
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine,
Boston Medical Center,
Boston, MA, USA
Joshua E Lane, MD
Clinical Assistant Professor,
Departments of Medicine (Dermatology) and Surgery,
Mercer University School of Medicine,
Macon, GA, USA

and

Clinical Assistant Professor,
Department of Dermatology,
Emory University School of Medicine,
Atlanta, GA, USA

and

Clinical Instructor,
Division of Dermatology, Department of
Medicine,
The Medical College of Georgia,
Augusta, GA, USA
Bradley D Anawalt, MD
Associate Chief of Medicine,
Veterans Affairs Puget Sound,
Seattle, WA, USA

and

Associate Professor of Medicine,
University of Washington,
Seattle, WA, USA
Geoffrey Leung, MD
Physician,
Family Medicine,
Riverside, CA, USA
David Moore, MD
Assistant Professor and Assistant Director of Residency Education,
Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences,
Emory University School of Medicine,
Atlanta, GA, USA
Mayur K Movalia, MD
Hematopathology Fellow,
Hartford Hospital,
Hartford, CT, USA
Bret P Nelson, MD
Director of Emergency Ultrasound,
Department of Emergency Medicine,
Mount Sinai School of Medicine,
New York, NY, USA
Hope Ricciotti, MD
Associate Professor, Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology,
Harvard Medical School,
Boston, MA, USA

and

Director of Medical Education,
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology,
Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center,
Boston, MA, USA
Randolph L Pearson, MD, FAAFP, FACSM
Associate Professor, Department of Family Practice,
Michigan State University,
East Lansing, MI, USA

and

Senior Associate Director and Fellowship Director,
Sparrow/MSU Family Medicine Residency,
Lansing, MI, USA
James M Norton, PhD
Professor of Physiology, Department of Physiology,
University of New England College of Osteopathic Medicine,
Biddeford, NE, USA
Dinesh S Rao, MD
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine,
David Geffen School of Medicine, UCLA,
Los Angeles, CA, USA
Donna M Russo, PhD
Associate Dean of Medical Education,
Professor of Microbiology and Immunology,
Department of Microbiology and Immunology,
Drexel University College of Medicine,
Philadelphia, PA, USA
Joseph E Scherger MD, MPH
Clinical Professor, Department of Family and Preventative Medicine,
University of California at San Diego School of Medicine,
San Diego, CA, USA
Marianna Sockrider, MD, DrPH, AE-C
Assistant Professor of Pediatrics,
Baylor College of Medicine,
Houston, TX, USA

and

Adjunct Faculty Member in Behavioral Science,
University of Texas, School of Public Health,
Houston, TX, USA
Brennan M R Spiegel, MD, MSHS
Assistant Professor of Medicine,
VA Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System,
David Geffen School of Medicine, UCLA,
Los Angeles, Ca, USA

and

Director, UCLA/VA Center for Outcomes
Research and Education,
Los Angeles, CA, USA
Carol E H Scott-Conner, MD, PhD
Professor of Surgery, Department of Surgery,
University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine,
Iowa City, IA, USA
Craig W Stevens, PhD
Professor of Pharmacology,
Department of Pharmacology and Physiology,
OSU-Center for Health Sciences,
College of Osteopathic Medicine,
Tulsa, OK, USA
James S Tan, MD †
Chairman,
Department of Medicine,
Summa Health Systems,
Akron, OH, USA
Stephen R Thompson, MD, MEd
Resident, Department of Orthopedics,
University of Maryland,
Baltimore, MD, USA
Joseph M Wu, PhD
Professor of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology,
MS Program Director,
New York Medical College,
Valhalla, NY, USA
Shahram Yazdani, MD
Director, Resident Medical Education,
Site Director of 3rd Year Medical School Clerkship,
Assistant Professor of Pediatrics,
Department of Pediatrics,
David Geffen School of Medicine, UCLA,
Los Angeles, CA, USA
† Deceased

Abeloff MD et al, Clinical Oncology, Churchill Livingstone

Fig. 69.19 Meningioma.
Fig. 70.7A Retinoblastoma producing leukokoria.
Fig. 70.7C Orbital CT of retinoblastoma showing intraocular tumor with calcification.
Fig. 83.2 Dynamic computed tomography scan of a hypervascular right lobe hepatocellular cancer.

Andreoli TE et al, Cecil Essentials of Medicine, Saunders

Fig. 9.5 Acute anterolateral myocardial infarction.
Fig. 10.9D Third-degree (complete) AV block with AV dissociation and a narrow-complex (AV nodal) escape rhythm.
Fig. 27.3 Glomerulus with inflammatory and proliferation.
Fig. 27.5 Glomerulus demonstrating crescent formation.
Fig. 27.10 Glomerulus with diffuse mesangial matrix increase and aneurysmal dilation of capillary loops typical of diabetic nephropathy
Fig. 34.3A Radiologic appearance of achalasia.
Fig. 36.3 Radiograph demonstrating small bowel Crohn's disease with skip areas and a "string" sign.

Auerbach PS, Wilderness Medicine, Mosby

Fig. 30.16 Giardia lamblia trophozoite seen by methylene blue wet mount staining under oil (1000×).

Behrman RE et al, Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics, Saunders

Fig. 88.4 Brachial palsy of the left arm (asymmetric Moro reflex).
Fig. 353.1 Electrocardiogram in hyperkalemia (serum potassium, 6.5 mEq/L; serum calcium, 5.1 mEq/L).
Fig. 371.1 Radiograph of an airway of a patient with croup, showing typical subglottic narrowing ("steeple sign").
Fig. 393.3A Contrast enema in a newborn infant with abdominal distention and failure to pass meconium.
Fig. 416.2-13 Electrocardiogram in hyperkalemia (serum potassium, 6.5 mEq/L; serum calcium, 5.1 mEq/L).
Fig. 424.5A Roentgenograms of total anomalous pulmonary venous return to the left superior vena cava. Preoperative image.
Fig. 493.2 Radiograph of an osteosarcoma of the femur with typical "sunburst" appearance of bone formation.
Fig. 536.1 Subcoronal hypospadias.
Fig. 536.4 Paraphimosis.
Fig. 537.4 Left varicocele in an adolescent boy.
Fig. 537.5 Newborn with large right hydrocele.
Fig. 668.4 Anteroposterior radiograph of the right hip of an 8-yr-old boy with Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease.
Fig. 704.1 Rumack-Matthew nomogram for acetaminophen poisoning.
Table 92.3 Hemorrhagic Disease of the Newborn.

Bolognia JL et al, Dermatology, Mosby

Fig. 10.14 Pityriasis rosea.
Fig. 14.2B Seborrheic dermatitis.
Fig. 20.5 Erythema (chronicum) migrans.
Fig. 28.8 Pyogenic granuloma.
Fig. 84.1 Elderly patient with scabies misdiagnosed as eczema.
Fig. 109.2 Actinic keratoses.
Fig. 109.7 Squamous cell carcinoma.
Fig. 110.1 Seborrheic keratosis.
Fig. 113.38 Giant congenital melanocytic nevus.
Fig. 114.7 Melanoma.
Fig. 114.14 Melanoma.
Fig. 143.6 Mental nerve block.
Fig. 151.11 Contact dermatitis to ointment.
Fig. 151.12 Suture reaction.

Bouloux PG, Self-Assessment Picture Tests: Medicine, Volume 3, Mosby

Fig. 75 Patient with Henoch Schönlein purpura (legs).

Boron WF and Boulpaep EL, Medical Physiology, Saunders

Fig. 20.10 A normal 12-lead ECG recording.

Bradley WG & Daroff RB, Neurology in Clinical Practice, Butterworth Heinemann

Fig. 37C.3 Anterior circulation after contrast injection into the left internal carotid artery.
Fig. 37C.4A Anteroposterior view of the posterior circulation, the left vertebral artery has been injected with contrast.

Brenner BM, Brenner & Rector's The Kidney 7E, Saunders

Fig. 52.20 Serial magnified radiographs of the index finger in a patient on peritoneal dialysis.
Table 64.5 Criteria That Exclude a Live Donor.

Brochert A, Platinum Vignettes: Ultra-High-Yield Clinical Case Scenarios for Step 2 -Surgical Subspecialties, Hanley and Belfus

Fig. p.67 Venous stasis ulcer from chronic venous insufficiency.

Burkitt GH and Quick CRG, Essential Surgery: Problems, Diagnosis and Management, Churchill Livingstone

Fig. 17.6 Sclerosing cholangitis.
Fig. 30.4B Pulmonary metastases from renal cell carcinoma.
Fig. 32.3 Perinephric abscess.
Fig. 33.8 Retroperitoneal fibrosis.

Burkitt GH et al, Essential Surgery: Problems, Diagnosis and Management, Churchill Livingstone

Fig. 26.4 Perforated Meckel's diverticulum

Canale ST, Campbell 's Operative Orthopaedics, Mosby

Fig. 27.3A Thirteen-month-old child with congenital dislocation of left hip.
Fig.74.1A Lipoma of middle finger causing fusiform swelling of base of finger and limited motion of fingers.

Cohen J and Powderly WG, Infectious Diseases, Mosby

Fig. 25.3 Facial spasm and risus sardonius in a Filipino patient who has tetanus.
Fig. 36.3 A lung abscess showing an air-fluid level.
Fig. 54.3 Erythema migrans.
Fig. 66d.1 Managing exposure to varicella during pregnancy.
Fig. 78.2B Chancroid ulcer after the performance of a swab, demonstrating the friability of the ulver base.
Fig. 81.4 Hand, foot and mouth disease.
Fig. 81.6 Oral signs in hand, foot and mouth disease.
Fig. 109.3 Gram stain of cerebrospinal fluid of a patient who has pneumococcal meningitis.
Fig. 124.2 Severe Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia.
Fig. 146.8 Toxoplasmosis.
Fig. 242.7B Giardia lamblia. Cysts containing multiple nuclei, linear axonemes and curved median bodies (iron-hematoxylin stain).
Fig. 245.3Babesia spp.
Table 52.2 Antimicrobial therapy for infections of bone

Corrin B, Pathology of the Lungs, Churchill Livingstone

Fig. 1.26 Type II pneumocyte.

Costanzo L, Physiology 3E, Saunders

Fig. 4.23 Left ventricular pressure-volume loop.

Cotran RS et al, Robbins Pathologic Basis of Disease, Saunders

Fig. 5.17 Bone marrow embolus in the pulmonary circulation.
Fig. 9.37 Measles giant cells in the lung.
Fig. 11.11 Hyaline membrane disease.
Fig. 17.7 Inverted papilloma.
Fig. 21.20 Minimal change disease. Thin section of glomerulus stained with PAS.

Damjanov I, Pathology for the Health-Related Professions, Saunders

Fig. 1.16 Atrophic brain.
Fig. 1.20 Anthracosis.
Fig. 4.7 Gross of lipoma (left slide); micro of lipoma (right side).
Fig. 4.11 Teratoma.

Damjanov I and Linder J, Pathology: A Color Atlas, C. V. Mosby

Fig. 4.26 Pulmonary thromboembolism.
Fig. 10.27 Papillary carcinoma.
Fig. 12.32 Benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH).
Fig. 14.14A Infiltrating ductal carcinoma.

Davies A et al, Human Physiology, Churchill Livingstone

Fig. 7.3.1 The oxygen-haemoglobin dissociation curve for adult haemoglobin at arterial pH and temperature.
Fig. 7.3.4 The CO2 dissociation curve.
Fig. 7.5.1 Patterns of respiratory function.
Fig. 10.4.2 Fetal and maternal oxygen-haemoglobin dissociation curves.

DeLee J, DeLee and Drez's Orthopaedic Sports Medicine, Saunders

Fig. 7.D.1 Estimated prevalences of cardiovascular diseases responsible for sudden death are compared in young (>35 years old) and older (>35 years) trained athletes.
Fig. 28B.20 Lateral parameniscal cyst on computed tomography.
Fig. 28B.21 Parameniscal cysts.
Fig. 28B.22 Lateral parameniscal cyst with tear.
Fig. 28B.66 Synovial cyst ("ganglion").
Fig. 28B.67 Arthrography of "Baker's cyst".
Fig. 28B.69 MRI of popliteal cysts.

Douglas G et al, Macleod's Clinical Examination, Churchill Livingstone

Fig. 4.5 Erythema nodosum.
Fig. 7.5 Peau d'orange of the breast.

Drake RL et al, Gray's Anatomy for Students, Churchill Livingstone

Fig. 2.27 Fused vertebral bodies of cervical vertebrae.
Fig. 2.33A Disc protrusion-T2 weighted magnetic resonance images of the lumbar region of the vertebral column.
Fig. 3.32 Intercostal muscles.
Fig. 3.52 Subdivisions of the mediastinum.
Fig. 3.109B Left coronary artery angiogram showing decreased flow due to blockages.
Fig. 4.88A Abdominal computed tomogram, with contrast, in the axial plane.
Fig. 6.135B Knee joint showing a torn anterior cruciate ligament.

Feldman M et al, Sleisenger & Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease, Saunders

Fig.18.25 Dermatitis herpetiformis: Pruritic, urticarial papules and small blisters concentrated over the shoulders, scalp, and lumbosacral area.
Fig. 84.14 99mTc scan of Meckel's diverticulum demonstrating ectopic uptake (arrowheads) in an area superior to the bladder (B) in the anterior projection and in the right lateral projection.
Fig. 97.2A Colonoscopic findings in Clostridium difficile colitis. Multiple yellow coalescent plaques throughout the rectum.
Fig. 103.3 Small bowel follow through in Crohn's disease.
Fig. 109.1 Relative frequency of the most common causes of small intestinal obstruction (a) and colonic obstruction (b).
Table 16.4 Management of Hyperglycemia in Patients Receiving Parenteral Nutrition.

Ferri F, Ferri's Clinical Advisor, Mosby

Fig. 1.17 Angioedema of the upper lip, with severe swelling of deeper tissues.
Fig. 1.95 Barium swallow demonstrating the classic findings in cancer of the distal third of the espophagus.
Fig. 1.165B Clinical picture of bony prominence anteriorly at the tibial tubercle.
Fig. 1.180 Peyronie's disease.
Fig. 1.209 Scabies organism in a wet mount preparation.

Ferri F, Practical Guide to the Care of the Medical Patient, Mosby

Fig. 4.1 Painful erythematous plaques with vesicles and bullae present in a dermatomal distribution in patient with herpes zoster.

Fitzpatrick J and Morelli J, Dermatology Secrets in Color, Mosby

Fig. 61.7 Multiple keloids secondary to ear piercing.

Forbes CD and Jackson WF, Color Atlas and Text of Clinical Medicine, Mosby

Fig. 3.81 Systemic sclerosis.
Fig. 3.86 Fingers in systemic sclerosis.
Fig. 4.94 Chest x-ray of emphysema.
Fig. 4.95 Right lateral x-ray.
Fig. 7.141 Anorexia nervosa.
Fig. 7.168 Down syndrome.
Fig. 7.72 Hypothyroidism.
Fig. 8.22 Scurvy.
Fig. 8.110 Barium enema.
Fig. 9.55 Kayser Fleischer ring.
Fig. 10.27 Ringed sideroblast.

Forbes CD and Jackson WF, Color Atlas and Text of Clinical Medicine, Mosby

Fig. 1.24 Candidiasis of the oesophagus in a patient with HIV infection, demonstrated by barium swallow.
Fig. 2.23 Lichenified eczema results from repeated scratching of lesions in eczematous patients.
Fig. 2.32 Contact dermatitis to nickel affects 10% of European women.
Fig. 2.34 Stasis eczema is commonly seen in elderly women, in association with venous insufficiency or frank ulceration.
Fig. 3.1 Monoarthritis.
Fig. 3.13 Polarized light microscopy reveals strongly negative birefringence in the needle-shaped urate crystals found in a joint aspirate from a patient with acute gout.
Fig. 3.50 Sacroiliac joint involvement in ankylosing spondylitis is often the earliest objective evidence of the disease.
Fig. 5.36 Atrial fibrillation.
Fig. 5.39 Wolff–Parkinson–White (WPW) syndrome.
Fig. 5.45 Ventricular fibrillation.
Fig. 5.177 Aortic dissection.
Fig. 5.118 Fallot's tetralogy.
Fig. 7.55 Graves' disease.
Fig. 8.39 Oesophageal candidiasis in a patient with AIDS.
Fig. 9.55 Wilson's disease.
Fig. 10.20 Blood film in iron deficiency showing hypochromia, anisocytosis and poikilocytosis.
Fig. 10.41 Hereditary spherocytosis.
Fig. 10.45 A ‘hair on end' appearance of the skull on X-ray is commonly associated with frontal bossing.
Fig. 10.118 Myeloma lesions in bones show up as characteristic ‘punched out' lesions without surrounding sclerosis.
Fig. 11.81 Large acute subdural haemorrhage (arrows) revealed by CT scan at the level of the lateral ventricles.

Garden OJ et al, Principles and Practice of Surgery, Churchill Livingstone

Fig. 26.23 Radiographic appearance of a right-sided tension pneumothorax (note the mediastinal shift to opposite side).

Gartner LP and Hiatt JL, Color Textbook of Histology, W.B. Saunders

Fig. 10.8 EM of eosinophil.
Fig. 10.13 Megakaryocytes.

Goldberger A, Clinical Electrocardiography: A Simplified Approach, Mosby

Fig. 10.11 Acute pericarditis causing diffuse ST segment elevations in leads I, II, aVF, and V2 to V6, with reciprocal ST depressions in lead aVR.
Fig. 10.13 Electrical alternans may develop in patients with pericardial effusion and cardiac tamponade.
Fig. 10.20 Notice the characteristic triad of the Wolff-Parkinson-White pattern.
Fig. 14.12A Long run of monomorphic ventricular tachycardia.

Goldman L and Ausiello D, Cecil Textbook of Medicine, Saunders

Fig. 7.2 Asymptomatic pulmonary embolus.
Fig. 23.1 Senile purpura is a common and benign condition that results from impaired collagen production and capillary fragility in the elderly.
Fig. 30.1 Injection drug use typically leads to this appearance, which results from repeated superficial thrombophlebitis of accessible veins in the arm or elsewhere in the body.
Fig. 59.3D Atrial flutter and atrial fibrillation. (Modified from Akhtar M: Examination of the Heart: V. The electrogram. With permission from the American Heart Association, Dallas, Tx.)
Fig. 63.6A Grade 1 of Hypertensive retinopathy.
Fig. 63.6B Grade 2 of Hypertensive retinopathy.
Fig. 63.6C Grade 3 of Hypertensive retinopathy.
Fig. 63.6D Grade 4 of Hypertensive retinopathy.
Fig. 69.2 Electrocardiographic tracing shows an acute anteriorlateral MI.
Fig. 77.1B Ischemic finger of a young male with Buerger's disease.
Fig. 77.2 Raynaud's phenomenon in the acute phase, with severe blanching of the tip of one finger.
Fig. 91.4 Chest radiograph shows characteristic features of stage II sarcoidosis: bilateral hilar adenopathy and diffuse interstitial lung disease.
Fig. 95.3 Posteroanterior radiograph of a patient with a mass in the anterior mediastinum.
Fig. 95.4 Lateral chest radiograph of the patient in Figure 95.3.
Fig. 95.5 Computed tomography scan of the patient in Figures 95.3 and 95.4.
Fig. 110.3 Isomorphic erythrocytes.
Fig. 110.6 A cast composed entirely of erythrocytes reflects heavy hematuria and active glomerular disease.
Fig. 124.1C The abnormal study shown in B (Study obtained 30 minutes after administration of captopril reveals marked delay in excretion of the nuclide by the left compared with the right kidney) combined with a strong clinical suspicion of renovascular hypertension led to selective renal arteriography, which clearly shows stenosis of the proximal left renal artery.
Fig. 136.5 Esophagram of a patient with idiopathic achalasia.
Fig. 136.6 Barium esophagram showing a "corkscrew" esophagus in a patient with diffuse esophageal spasm.
Fig. 136.7 Barium esophagram showing a Zenker's diverticulum (arrow).
Fig. 161.3 Short stacks or rows of red blood cells, typical for rouleaux formation as seen with elevated globulin levels (x100). (Courtesy of Jean Shafer.)
Fig. 161.14 One seven-lobed neutrophil and oval macrocytes, typical of folate or vitamin B12 deficiency (x250). (Courtesy of Jean Shafer.)
Fig. 167.2 Iron deficiency anemia commonly leads to pallor of the face, lips, and tongue, and when chronic to atrophic glossitis and angular stomatitis.
Fig. 192.1 Chronic myelogenous leukemia, stable phase.
Fig. 192.3 Hairy cell leukemia.
Fig. 209.3 Superficial spreading melanoma.
Fig. 224.1 Kayser-Fleischer ring in newly diagnosed patient with Wilson's disease.
Fig. 237.2 Clinical features of Cushing's disease.
Fig. 258.4 Radiograph showing radiolucency, compression fractures, and kyphosis in the spine of a patient with osteoporosis.
Fig. 263.1 Osteopetrosis.
Fig. 279.2 Bilaterally symmetrical sacroilitis in ankylosing spondylitis.
Fig. 279.6 Bilaterally asymmetrical sacroiliitis in Reiter's syndrome.
Fig. 279.7 Nail pitting, onycholysis, and transverse ridging in psoriatic arthritis.
Fig. 281.5B Features of CREST syndrome. B, Telangiectasia on mucous membrane and tongue.
Fig. 310.2 Osler's node in infective endocarditis.
Fig. 349.1A Chancre in primary syphilis.
Fig. 415.1 Chest radiograph of an HIV-infected person, CD4+ cell count greater than 200 cells/µL, revealing left lingular consolidation.
Fig. 465.10 Herpes simplex corneal epithelial keratitis in diffuse light and (inset) in light passed through a cobalt blue filter after fluorescein staining.
Fig. 474.9 Thickening and crumbling of nail plate (onychodystrophy) in a patient with psoriasis.
Fig. 474.16 Hypopigmented patches of tinea versicolor.
Fig. 475.10 Blister and erosions on the dorsal hand of a patient with porphyria cutanea tarda.
Fig. 475.13 Trunk of a patient with staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome revealing confluent erythema with exfoliation of the truncal skin.
Fig. 476.17 Cutaneous sarcoidosis.
Fig. 477.5 Disseminated gonococcal infection with an acral pustule on a red-violet base.

Goldstein BG and Goldstein AO, Practical Dermatology, Mosby

Fig. 6.11 Black widow spider. (Courtesy of Entomological Society of America/Ries Memorial Slide Collection.)

Goljan E, Rapid Review Pathology, Mosby

Fig. 24.18 Nail changes in psoriasis showing pitting and separation of the distal nail plate (onycholysis).

Gordis L, Epidemiology, Saunders

Fig. 14.4 Correlation between dietary fat intake and breast cancer by country.

Grainger RG et al, Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging, Churchill Livingstone

Fig. 16.41 Left pneumothorax.
Fig. 26.4 Traumatic diaphragmatic rupture.
Fig. 80.20 Osteosarcoma.
Fig. 80.21 Osteosarcoma.
Fig. 89.1 (Left) Greenstick fractures.
Fig. 99B.14 Enhancement in toxoplasmosis.
Fig. 102.15 Degenerative spondylolisthesis.

Green NE and Swiontkowski MF, Skeletal Trauma in Children, Saunders

Fig. 16.11 Salter-Harris type II fracture of the distal end of the tibia with a fibular shaft fracture.

Habif TP, Clinical Dermatology, Mosby

Fig. 5.5 Atopic dermatitis.
Fig. 5.12 Atopic dermatitis.
Fig. 5.14 Atopic dermatitis.
Fig. 8.19 Pitting psoriasis of the proximal nail matrix results in the loss of parakeratotic cells from the surface of the nail plate.
Fig. 8.46A Large number of purple polycyclic lesions on the wrist.
Fig. 8.52 Mucous membrane lichen planus.
Fig. 9.6 Impetigo.
Fig. 10.2 Natural history of untreated acquired syphilis.
Fig. 10.6 Secondary Syphilis.
Fig. 10.9 Numerous lesions are present on all body surfaces.
Fig. 10.10 Lesions on palms and soles occur in the majority of patients with secondary syphilis.
Fig. 10.11 Late congenital syphilis.
Fig. 10.19 Granuloma inguinale.
Fig. 11.1 Warts on the shaft may have a papillomatous surface and a very broad base.
Fig. 11.16A Primary herpes simplex. Scattered erosions covered with exudate.
Fig. 12.24 Molluscum contagiosum.
Fig. 12.45 Lesions present in all stages of development.
Fig. 12.55 A common presentation with involvement of a single thoracic dermatome.
Fig. 13.40 Inflammatory tinea capitis.
Fig. 14.3 Aphthae-like erosions may appear anywhere in the oral cavity.
Fig. 14.5 A cluster on the soles of a young boy.
Fig. 14.22 Kawasaki syndrome.
Fig. 15.28 Erythema migrans.
Fig. 17.13 Dermatomyositis.
Fig. 17.14 Gottron's papules.
Fig. 17.18 Scleroderma.
Fig. 18.10 Palpable purpura are most often found on the lower leg.
Fig.18.13 Henoch-Schönlein purpura.
Fig. 20.26 Keloid.
Fig. 20.29 Blacks develop keloids most commonly on the earlobes and face.
Fig. 21.3a Nodular Basal Cell Carcinoma. Classic Presentation.
Fig. 24.11b Alopecia areata. The regrown hair is white.
Fig. 26.11A von Recklinghausen's neurofibromatosis, Café-au-lait spots vary in size and have a smooth border.
Fig. 26.13A von Recklinghausen's neurofibromatosis, Lisch nodules.
Fig. 26.13B von Recklinghausen's neurofibromatosis – Lisch nodules. Slip-lamp examination is essential for differentiation from iris freckles.

Harris ED Jr et al, Kelley's Textbook of Rheumatology, Saunders

Fig. 51.22 Osteoarthritis of the Hip.
Fig. 51.54 Sacroiliitis in Ankylosing Spondylitis.
Fig. 51.56 The Syndesmophytes of Ankylosing Spondylitis.
Fig. 84.2 Superior Mesenteric Arteriogram in Patient with Polyarteritis.

Hart CA and Shears P, Color Atlas of Medical Microbiology, Mosby

Fig. 139 Listeria monocytogenes.
Fig. 205 Gram stain of CSF from a patient with meningococcal meningitis.
Fig. 223 Effect of Staphylococcus aureus on the growth of Haemophilus influenzae.
Fig. 225 Culture of Pasteurella multocida.
Fig. 235 Vibrio cholerae.
Fig. 246 Gardnerella vaginalis, Gram stain.
Fig. 305 Dark-field microscopy of Treponema pallidum.
Fig. 390 Candida albicans on oral mucosa.
Fig. 410 Giardia intestinalis (lamblia) trophozoites.
Fig. 412 Trichomonas vaginalis.
Fig. 427 Plasmodium falciparum trophozoites.
Fig. 439 Schistosoma japonicum ovum.
Fig. 440 Schistosoma haematobium ovum.
Fig. 449 Enterobius vermicularis ova.
Fig. 454 Trichuris trichiura.

Haslett C et al, Davidson's Principles and Practice of Medicine, Churchill Livingstone

Fig. 1.29 Typical 'shingles' varicella zoster virus infection reactivating in a thoracic dermatome.
Fig. 1.81 Molluscum contagiosum.
Fig. 1.91 Widespread cutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma.
Fig. 1.92 Oral Kaposi's sarcoma.
Fig. 12.42 Supraventricular tachycardia.
Fig. 14.40 Renal adenocarcinoma.
Fig. 19.30 Hodgkin's disease showing typical Reed-Sternberg cell.
Fig. 20.47 Scarring alopecia due to discoid lupus.
Fig. 21.10 Alopecia areata.
Fig. 21.11 Atopic subacute eczema on the fronts of the ankles of a teenager.
Fig. 21.15 Coarse pitting of the nail and separation of the nail from the nail bed (onycholysis).
Fig. 21.32 Numerous actinic keratoses in a white patient who had lived for years in the tropics.

Henry JB et al, Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods, Saunders

Plate 26.2G Blood film, hemoglobin H disease. A form of thalassemia, this has the combination of microcytic hypochromic red cells and hemolysis. Target cells are numerous.
Plate 50.1 Streptococcus pneumoniae.
Plate 55.8C Trophozoite of Giardia lamblia

Henry MM and Thompson JN, Clinical Surgery, Saunders

Fig. 3.6 Abnormal widening of the pubic symphysis with an associated rupture of the urethra and high-riding bladder.
Fig. 4.11B X-rays give only a two-dimensional representation of a three-dimensional object. In many circumstances, particularly skeletal trauma, it is essential to obtain two views, ideally in orthogonal (right angle) planes.
Fig. 19.13 A hepatic adenoma seen on CT scanning.
Fig. 20.1 Abdominal CT showing a large splenic mass of mixed attenuation in a patient who has recently undergone blunt abdominal trauma.
Fig. 21.2 Extensive flank bruising in acute pancreatitis - Grey Turner's sign.
Fig. 21.3 Plain abdominal X-ray showing a dilated loop of small bowel in the epigastrium in acute pancreatitis - the sentinel loop.
Fig. 23.1 Small bowel obstruction: erect X-ray.
Fig. 23.4 Meckel's diverticulum.
Fig. 24.10 Histological appearance of a tubular adenoma of the colon.
Fig. 27.4 'Peau d'orange' of cancer of the breast.
Fig. 27.5 'Teardrop' appearance of phylloides tumour of the breast.

Henry MM and Thompson JN, Clinical Surgery, Saunders

Fig. 33.8 Types of meniscal tear in the knee.
Fig. 34.10 Dislocation of the elbow.
Fig. 38.17 Acral melanoma spreading under nail.

Herring W, Learning Radiology: Recognizing the basic, Mosby

Fig. 19.5 Hiatal hernia. A bulbous collection of contrast material (open white arrow) represents the stomach herniated above the diaphragm (closed black arrow).

Hoffbrand AV and Pettit JE, Color Atlas of Clinical Hematology, Mosby

Fig. 1.62 Normal red cells.

Hoffman R et al, Hematology: Basic Principles and Practice, Churchill Livingstone

Fig. 157.28 Abnormal macrophage in Gaucher disease.
Fig. 157.29 Abnormal macrophage in Niemann-Pick disease.

Johns Hopkins Hospital, The Harriet Lane Handbook: A Manual for Pediatric House Officers, Mosby

Fig. 5.5 Forward bending test.
Fig. 5.6 Cobb angle.

Klatt E, Robbins and Cotran Atlas of Pathology, Saunders

Fig. 2.32 Myocardial infarction microscopic.
Fig. 5.16 Pulmonary edema, microscopic.
Fig. 5.93 Pneumocystis, microscopic.
Fig. 8.46 Primary sclerosing cholangitis, radiograph and microscopic.
Fig. 13.29 Normal cervical transformation zone, microscopic.
Fig. 15.14 Hashimoto thyroiditis, microscopic.
Fig. 16.15 Malignant melanoma, microscopic.

Kumar P and Clark M, Clinical Medicine, Saunders

Fig. 2.17 Shingles - VZV affecting a dermatome.
Fig. 2.18 Typical 'owl-eye' inclusion-bearing cell infected with cytomegalovirus.
Fig. 2.33 Giardia intestinalis on small intestinal mucosa. (Courtesy of Dr A Phillips, Department of Electron Microscopy, Royal Free Hospital, London.)
Fig. 2.40 Neisseria gonorrhoeae - Gram-negative intracellular diplococci. (Courtesy of Dr B Goh.)
Fig. 2.42 Rash of secondary syphilis on the palms. (Courtesy of Dr B Goh.)
Fig. 6.9 Carcinoma of the oesophagus.
Fig. 6.28 Terminal ileum on small bowel follow-through in Crohn's disease, showing narrowing and ulceration of the terminal ileum (arrow).
Fig. 7.6 Gall bladder ultrasound with multiple echogenic gallstones causing well-defined acoustic shadowing.
Fig. 7.21B CT scan showing an irregular lobulated liver.
Fig. 7.24 CT scan of liver showing a large hydatid cyst (arrow) with 'daughter' cysts lying within it.
Fig. 8.13B Bone marrow trephine biopsies in low-power view. Hypocellularity in aplastic anaemia.
Fig. 9.8 Histological appearance of Hodgkin's disease.
Fig 9.13 Myeloma affecting the skull. Note the rounded lytic translucencies produced by infiltration of the skull with myeloma cells.
Fig. 9.14 Multiple myeloma.
Fig. 10.19 X-ray of bamboo spine in ankylosing spondylitis.
Fig. 10.20 X-ray of psoriatic arthritis.
Fig. 10.23A Needle-shaped urate crystals, viewed under polarized light with a red filter.
Fig. 10.40B Paget's disease.
Fig. 11.31 X-ray, showing acute left ureteric obstruction.
Fig. 11.46 Ultrasound scan of a polycystic kidney, showing an enlarged kidney with many cysts of varying size.
Fig. 13.35 Three varieties of second-degree atrioventricular (AV) block.
Fig. 13.37 A 12-lead ECG showing left bundle branch block.
Fig. 13.41 Atrial tachycardia with second-degree atrioventricular block.
Fig. 13.62 A widespread (anterolateral) subendocardial myocardial infarction shown by a 12-lead ECG.
Fig. 13.63 An acute inferior wall myocardial infarction shown by a 12-lead ECG.
Fig. 13.64 An acute anterolateral myocardial infarction shown by a 12-lead ECG.
Fig. 13.70 Severe mitral stenosis shown by a 12-lead ECG.
Fig. 13.72 Left ventricular hypertrophy shown in a 12-lead ECG.
Fig. 13.83 Marfan's syndrome
Fig. 13.85 Acute pulmonary embolism shown by a 12-lead ECG.
Fig. 13.87 Pulmonary hypertension shown by a 12-lead ECG.
Fig. 14.39 CT scan in sarcoidosis.
Fig. 15.23 Chest radiograph appearances in adult respiratory distress syndrome.
Fig. 18.13A Polycystic ovarian syndrome.
Fig. 20.15D CT: Subarachnoid haemorrhage.
Fig. 20.15G MR (T1): Glioblastoma multiforme.
Fig. 20.15H Image d Examples of CT and MRI imaging. CT: Subarachnoid haemorrhage.
Fig. 20.15P Image of Examples of CT and MRI imaging. MR (T2): Multiple sclerosis.
Fig. 22.15A Psoriasis of the knees.
Fig. 22.18 Lichen planus.
Fig. 22.20 Rosacea.
Fig. 22.21A Erythema multiforme major - target lesions of the palm.
Fig. 22.22 Pyoderma gangrenosum.
Fig. 22.25 Systemic lupus erythematosus - 'butterfly' rash.
Fig. 22.27 Bullous pemphigoid.
Fig. 22.36 Vitiligo.
Fig. 22.37 Morbilliform drug rash, due to penicillin allergy.
Fig. 22.38 Erythema nodosum in a patient on co-trimoxazole with HIV.

Kumar P and Clark M, Clinical Medicine, Saunders

Fig. 23.32 Ulcerating basal cell carcinoma.

Kumar V et al, Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease, Saunders

Fig. 1.6B Metaplasic transformation of esophageal stratified squamous epithelium.
Fig. 2.33 Tuberculous granuloma.
Fig. 4.4A Gross of liver with central areas showing nutmeg pattern.
Fig. 4.4B Microscopic. (Courtesy of Dr. James Crawford, Department of Pathology, University of Florida, Gainesville,FL.)
Fig. 6.49 HIV infection with multinucleated microglial cell.
Fig. 8.49A and B. Aspergillus morphology. A, Invasive aspergillosis of the lung in a bone marrow transplant patient. B, Histologic sections from this case, stained with Gomori methenamine-silver (GMS) stain, show septate hyphae with acute-angle branching, features consistent with Aspergillus.
Fig. 8.53 P. falciparum-infected red cells marginating within a vein in cerebral malaria.
Fig. 10-11 Hyaline membrane disease.
Fig. 10-16 Kernicterus.
Fig. 10-24 Pancreas in cystic fibrosis.
Fig. 11-19B Abdominal aortic aneurysm.
Fig. 12-23A Mitral valve prolapse.
Fig. 12-24C Mitral stenosis.
Fig. 12-34A Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. (Reproduced by permission from Schoen FJ, Interventional and Surgical Cardiovascular Pathology: Clinical Correlations and Basic Principles, W. B Saunders 1989.)
Fig. 12-36B Viral myocarditis.
Fig. 13-6 Hereditary spherocytosis. (Courtesy of Dr. Robert W. McKenna, Department of Pathology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical School, Dallas, TX.)
Fig. 13.8 G6PD deficiency. (Courtesy of Dr. Robert W. McKenna, Department of Pathology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical School, Dallas, TX.)
Fig. 13.9A Sickle cells.
Fig. 13.17 Schistocytes. (Courtesy of Dr. Robert W. McKenna, Department of Pathology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical School, Dallas, TX.)
Fig. 13.25 Iron deficiency. (Courtesy of Dr. Robert W. McKenna, Department of Pathology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical School, Dallas, TX.)
Fig. 14.5A Acute lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma.
Fig. 14.7 Chronic lymphocytic leukemia. (Courtesy of Dr. Jacqueline Mitus, Brigham and Women's Hospital , Boston, MA.)
Fig.14.15 Multiple myeloma of the skull (radiograph, lateral view).
Fig. 14.16 Multiple myeloma.
Fig. 14.23A Reed-Sternberg cell. (Courtesy of Dr. Robert W. McKenna, Department of Pathology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical School, Dallas, TX.)
Fig. 14.29A Acute promyelocytic leukemia.
Fig. 14.29B Acute monocytic leukemia (FAB M5b subtype).
Fig. 14.32 Chronic myelogenous leukemia. (Courtesy of Dr. Robert W. McKenna, Department of Pathology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical School, Dallas, TX.)
Fig. 14.47 Numerous metastases to lung from a renal cell carcinoma. (Courtesy of Dr. Michelle Mantel, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA.)
Fig. 15.3 Diffuse alveolar damage (ARDS).
Fig. 15.23 Sarcoid granulomas. (Courtesy of Dr. Ramon Blanco, Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA.)
Fig. 15.42 Lung carcinoma.
Fig. 15.44A Well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma.
Fig. 15.44B Adenocarcinoma of lung.
Fig. 15.44C Small cell carcinoma.
Fig. 15.48 Mesothelioma.
Fig. 16.16A Patient with pleomorphic adenoma.
Fig. 17.15 Helicobacter pylori.
Fig. 17.39B PAS stain showing the positive granules in the foamy macrophages.
Fig. 17.40 Crohn's disease of ileum.
Fig. 17.57A Pedunculated tubular adenoma.
Fig. 17.57B Focus of dysplastic adenomatous epithelium.
Fig. 17.65B Histologic section of carcinoid tumor.
Fig. 17.65C Electron micrograph.
Fig. 18.46 Multiple hepatic metastases.
Fig. 20.8B Autosomal dominant adult polycystic kidney disease.
Fig. 20.10E Linear, characteristic of classic anti-GBM disease.
Fig. 20.26A IgA nephropathy.
Fig. 20.31 Diffuse and nodular diabetic glomerulosclerosis (PAS stain).
Fig. 21.23 Seminoma of the testis.
Fig. 21.15 Condyloma acuminatum of the penis.
Fig. 21.24B Microscopic high power of seminoma.
Fig. 22.14 Clear cell adenocarcinoma of vagina.
Fig. 22.19 Spectrum of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: CIN III (carcinoma in situ) with diffuse atypia and loss of maturation.
Fig. 22.32A Endometrial carcinoma.
Fig. 22.32B Well differentiated endometrial adenocarcinoma.
Fig. 22.49 Benign cystic teratoma.
Fig. 25.12A This symmetric crater-like nodule has a prominent central keratin plug.
Fig. 25.21A Ichthyosis.
Fig. 25.36 Bullous pemphigoid.
Fig. 25.38 Dermatitis herpetiformis.
Fig. 28.15A Red infarct.
Fig. 28.35A Senile (neuritic) plaque.
Fig. 28.48B Meningioma.
Table 23.2 Breast Lesions and Relative Risk of Developing Invasive Carcinoma.
Table 20.13 Prevalence of Various Types of Renal Stones.

Kumar V et al, Robbins Basic Pathology, Saunders

Fig. 4.19 Cytokine cascade in sepsis.
Fig. 11.19 Histologic section of heart from a patient who died of myocarditis, demonstrating a multifocal, predominantly lymphocytic inflammatory infiltrate around blood vessels and between cardiac myocytes.
Fig. 12.21 Hodgkin lymphoma.

Lim E et al, Medicine and Surgery, Churchill Livingstone

Fig. 5.8 CT of pyogenic liver abscess.

Lissauer T and Clayden G, Illustrated Textbook of Pediatrics, Mosby

Fig. 6.10B Bruising within the pinna is uncommon in accidental injury.
Fig. 7.2B Single palmar crease.
Fig. 7.7B Overlapping of the fingers in Edwards' syndrome.
Fig. 8.10 Cataract from congenital rubella.
Fig. 8.20C A Mongolian blue spot.
Fig. 9.6 Erb's palsy.
Fig. 9.21 Chest X-ray in diaphragmatic hernia showing loops of bowel in the chest and displacement of the mediastinum.
Fig. 9.26 Micrognathia in Pierre-Robin sequence.
Fig. 9.5 A large cephalhaematoma.
Fig. 11.23 An X-ray of the wrist showing rickets.
Fig. 12.16B Histology of a jejunal biopsy showing lymphocytic infiltration and villous atrophy confirming coeliac disease.
Fig. 13.10 Impetigo showing characteristic confluent honey-coloured crusted lesions. (Courtesy of Dr Paul Hutchins.)
Fig. 13.12 Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome.
Fig. 13.18A Rash of meningococcal infection.
Fig. 13.20 Herpes simplex encephalitis.
Fig. 13.27 A CT scan in a child with HIV encephalopathy showing diffuse increase in CSF spaces from cerebral atrophy and volume loss.
Fig. 14.9 In acute bronchiolitis, the chest X-ray shows hyperinflation of the lungs with flattening of the diaphragm, horizontal ribs and increased hilar bronchial markings.
Fig. 14.10 Consolidation of the right upper lobe.
Fig. 14.11 Multiple cavities containing fluid and air in staphylococcal pneumonia.
Fig. 14.14 Pectus carinatum ('pigeon chest') deformity is usually associated with chronic airways obstruction, such as asthma.
Fig. 14.25 Hyperlucency of the right lung and mediastinal shift to the left. (Courtesy of Dr Abbas Khakoo.)
Fig. 14.27 A chest X-ray in cystic fibrosis showing hyperexpansion, marked peribronchial shadowing, bronchial wall thickening and ring shadows.
Fig. 15.25 ECG of congenital complete heart block.
Fig. 15.27 Widespread infected emboli and infarcts in a child with bacterial endocarditis.
Fig. 16.3 Potter's syndrome.
Fig. 18.5 Liver biopsy of biliary atresia showing bands of fibrous tissue with bile duct proliferation.
Fig. 19.21 Lytic bone lesions on a skull X-ray in Langerhans cell histiocytosis.
Fig. 20.26 Bruising and purpura from immune thrombocytopenic purpura.
Fig. 22.13 Molluscum contagiosum on the chest and upper arm showing the pearly papules with central umbilication through which the infectious central core is eventually shed.
Fig. 22.15 Scabies in a young child affecting the palm.
Fig. 23.15 Untreated congenital hypothyroidism.
Fig. 23.19 Buccal pigmentation in adrenal cortical insufficiency (Addison's disease).
Fig. 24.8 Perthes disease, showing flattening with sclerosis and fragmentation of the right femoral capital epiphysis; the left hip is normal.
Fig. 24.9 Slipped upper femoral epiphysis of the right hip; the left hip is normal.
Fig. 24.11 Talipes equinovarus.
Fig. 24.21 Polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis, showing swelling of the wrists, metacarpal and interphalangeal joints and early swan-neck deformities of the fingers.
Fig. 24.23B Salmon-pink rash.
Fig. 24.24B Osteogenesis imperfecta (type II) showing gross deformity of the bones of the lower limbs with multiple healing fractures.
Fig. 25.5 EEG in a typical absence (petit mal) seizure.
Fig. 25.25 Heliotrope rash in dermatomyositis.

MacSween RNM et al, Pathology of the Liver, Churchill Livingstone

Fig. 7.4 Acute hepatitis with apoptotic body.

Marx JA, Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice, Mosby

Fig. 34.4 Non-contrast-enhanced CT scan of acute epidural hematoma at level of right midconvexity.
Fig. 42.9A Hand-held device for measuring compartment syndrome.
Fig. 42.9B Insert device perpendicular to skin.
Fig. 44.15A Colles' fracture.
Fig. 44.15B Colle's fracture.
Fig. 46.34 AP and axillary views of a posterior glenohumeral dislocation.
Fig. 48.3 Algorithm for initial management of pelvic fractures.
Fig. 72.3 Radiograph of tension pneumothorax with mediastinal shift to left.
Fig. 74.15 Second-degree AV block, type I (Wenckebach).
Fig. 87.1 Upright abdominal film revealing multiple air-fluid levels and small bowel dilation, consistent with a diagnosis of small bowel obstruction.
Fig. 90.1 Barium enema in a 2-week-old infant demonstrating narrowed distal colon-rectum of HD.
Fig. 94.6 KUB demonstrating a staghorn calculus in the right kidney.
Fig. 114.10 Erythema marginatum associated with rheumatic fever.
Fig. 130.6 Magnetic resonance image.
Fig. 169.11 Fracture of the middle third of the clavicle.
Table 73.4 Acute Myocardial Infarction Location and Reflecting Leads.

Mettler F, Essentials of Radiology

Fig. 3.90 Sarcoid.
Fig. 8.176 Child abuse.

Miller R, Miller's Anesthesia, Churchill Livingstone

Fig 29.1 The key ion channels involved in neuromuscular transmission and excitation contraction coupling.

Mims C et al, Medical Microbiology, Mosby

Fig. 21.8 The fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption test for syphilis.
Fig. 21.10 Gonococcal urethritis.
Fig. 24.12 Cryptococcus neoformans in India ink stained preparation of cerebrospinal fluid sediment.
Fig. 26.10 Impetigo is a condition limited to the epidermis, with typically yellow, crusted lesions.
Fig. 26.16 Gas gangrene caused by Clostridium perfringens.
Fig. 27.11 Rash of erythema chronicum migrans on the leg in Lyme disease.

Mohr JP et al, Stroke: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Management, Churchill Livingstone

Fig. 52.3 Course of edema formation in complete infarction of the middle cerebral artery.

Moore KL and Persaud TVN, The Developing Human: Clinically Oriented Embryology, Saunders

Fig. 12.7 Ultrasound scans of a fetus at 33 weeks' gestation (31 weeks after fertilization) showing duodenal atresia.
Fig. 12.27 Radiograph of the colon after a barium enema in a one-month-old infant with congenital megacolon or Hirschsprung disease.

Mueller RF and Young ID, Emery's Elements of Medical Genetics, Churchill Livingstone

Fig. 9.6 Blood film showing sickling of red cells in sickle-cell disease.
Fig. 10.7 Legs of a person homozygous for familial hypercholesterolaemia, showing multiple xanthomata. (Courtesy of Dr E Wraith, Royal Manchester Children's Hospital, Manchester.)
Fig. 17.21 Ocular telangiectasia in a child with ataxia telangiectasia.
Fig. 17.22 Bilateral radial aplasia with absent thumbs in an infant with Fanconi's anaemia.
Fig. 18.4 A patient with neurofibromatosis type I showing truncal freckling, café-au-lait spots and multiple neurofibromata.
Fig. 18.9 Lower limbs of an adult male with Becker muscular dystrophy showing proximal wasting and calf pseudohypertrophy.

Murray PR et al, Medical Microbiology, Mosby

Fig. 25.2 Bacillus anthracis in the blood of a patient with inhalation anthrax.
Fig. 25.4 Inhalation anthrax demonstrating enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes.
Fig. 30.1 Neisseria gonorrhoeae in urethral exudate.
Fig. 30.6 Gram stain of cerebrospinal fluid showing Neisseria meningitides.
Fig. 61.4 Electron micrograph of the Ebola virus.
Fig. 62.3 Electon micrograph of rotavirus Bar = 100 nm.
Fig. 71.5 Silver stain of Pneumocystis jiroveci (carinii) cysts.
Fig. 72.7 Epidermophyton floccosum, lactophenol cotton blue showing smooth-walled macroconidia (magnification 400×).
Fig. 72.9 Trichophyton rubrum, lactophenol cotton blue showing teardrop- and peg-shaped microconidia and multicelled macrocondia (magnification 500×).
Fig. 72.14 Tinea capitis caused by Microsporum canis.
Fig. 73.1 Classic lymphocutaneous form of sporotrichosis demonstrating a chain of subcutaneous nodules along the lymphatic drainage of the arm.
Fig. 73.2 Mould phase of Sporothrix schenckii.
Fig. 73.3 Yeast phase of Sporothrix schenckii in tissue.
Fig. 74.7 Coccidioides immitis mould phase.
Fig. 74.8 Coccidioides immitis spherule.
Fig. 75.8 Cryptococcus neoformans India ink preparation demonstrating the large capsule surrounding budding yeast cells (magnification 1000×).
Fig. 75.12 Aspergillus fumigatus, lactophenol cotton blue preparation showing conidial head (magnification 400×).
Fig. 82.3a Giardia lamblia (duodenalis) trophozoite.

Naeim F, Atlas of Bone Marrow and Blood Pathology, Saunders

Fig. 2.22M Coarse basophilic stippling.
Fig. 5.1c Myeloblast with Auer rod.
Fig. 11.14B Gaucher cell.
Fig. 13.1 Virus-associated reactive lymphocytosis.
Fig. 14.10B Hypersegmented neutrophil.

Nairn R and Helbert M, Immunology for Medical Students, Mosby

Fig. 26.14 Angioedema can be seen as an isolated feature of allergy or as a part of anaphylaxis.

Noble J, Textbook of Primary Care Medicine, Mosby

Fig. 61.5 ECG example of atrial fibrillation.
Fig. 106.3 Calcification in pancreas
Plate 93 (Courtesy of James C. Shaw MD.) Erythema nodosum

Nussbaum RL et al, Thompson & Thompson Genetics in Medicine, Saunders

Fig. 5.11 Pedigree of split-hand deformity demonstrating failure of penetrance in the mother of the consultand.

Oats JK and Abraham S, Llewellyn-Jones Fundamentals of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Mosby

Fig. 21.3 Occipitoposterior.

Page C et al, Integrated Pharmacology, Mosby

Fig. 10.2 Tinea capitis.

Park MK, Pediatric Cardiology for Practitioners, Mosby

Fig. 21.5 Diagram of auscultatory findings in mitral valve prolapse and the effect of various maneuvers on the timing of the midsystolic click (MC) and the murmur.
Fig. 35.1 ECG of a patient with the Romano-Ward syndrome at age 6 years demonstrates the longest QTc interval (0.56 second).

Pretorius E and Solomon J, Radiology Secrets, Mosby

Fig 14.4 Schatzki ring demonstrated by single contrast esophagogram.

Regezi JA et al, Oral Pathology: Clinical Pathologic Correlations, Saunders

Fig. 1.15 Measles-associated Koplik's spots in buccal mucosa. (Roitt I et al, Immunology 6E, Mosby 2001.)
Fig. 19.10 DiGeorge anomaly.
Fig. 21.2 Anaphylaxis and urticaria.
Fig. 24.22 Chest radiograph of a patient with pulmonary tuberculosis.
Fig. 24.26 The chest radiograph of a patient with sarcoidosis.

Souhami RL and Moxham J, Textbook of Medicine, Churchill Livingstone

Fig. 10.51 Mycosis fungoides.
Fig. 12.29 ECG showing first-degree heart block. Note prolonged PR interval (0.28s).
Fig. 13.65 Carcinoma of the bronchus: apical (Pancoast's) tumour.

Standring S, Gray's Anatomy: The Anatomical Basis of Clinical Practice, Churchill Livingstone

Fig. 3.6 Pseudostratified columnar epithelium, with ciliated cells, goblet cells with their apical cytoplasm distended by mucinogen granules, and basal cells.
Fig. 25.2 Lateral aspect of the head: bones.
Fig. 42.3 Normal human corneal epithelial cells.
Fig. 62.8 Electron micrograph of the thin portion of an interalveolar septum.

Stenchever MA et al, Comprehensive Gynecology, Mosby

Fig. 24.2 Prevalence of infection and febrile morbidity in the study and control group by route of administration. i.m., intramuscularly; i.v., intravenously. (From Tanos V and Rojansky N: J Am Coll Surg 179:593, 1994.)
Table 24.3 Pharmacologic Properties of Cephalosporins.

Stevens A and Lowe JS, Human Histology, Mosby

Fig. 4.7 Hyperextensibility of finger joint in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.
Fig. 6.21B Peripheral nerve. Micrograph of a small nerve fascicle embedded in resin and stained with toluidine blue.
Fig. 12.6A Bile canaliculi.
Fig. 12.6B Electron micrograph of the canalicular surface of two apposed hepatocytes.
Fig. 14.6 Traditional methods for demonstrating cells of the anterior pituitary.
Fig. 15.22 Distal tubule.
Fig. 16.9 Sertoli cells.
Fig. 16.16 Prostate.
Fig. 17.10A Normal myometrium from a non-pregnant 35-year-old woman.
Fig. 17.10B Myometrium from a 28-year-old woman in the eighth month of pregnancy, photographed at the same magnification as Fig. 17.10A.

Stevens A and Lowe JS, Pathology, Mosby

Fig. 6.9A Lymphatic invasion by tumor.
Fig. 10.33 Pulmonary oedema – left heart failure.
Fig. 14.31A a-1-antitrypsin deficiency.
Fig. 21.52 Dystrophin abnormalities.
Fig. 23.8A Molluscum contagiosum.
Fig. 23.17 Erythema nodosum.
Fig. 24.2 Osteoporosis.

Swartz MH, Textbook of Physical Diagnosis: History and Examination, Saunders

Fig. 4.9 Perifollicular purpura and ecchymoses caused by vitamin C deficiency.
Fig. 7.121 Anthrax.
Fig. 7.123 (Right) Smallpox.
Fig. 13.15 Eruptive xanthomata on the face.
Fig. 17.40 Keratoderma blennorrhagicum in a patient with Reiter's syndrome.
Fig. 19.60 Tophi on the fingers.

Swartz MH, Textbook of Physical Diagnosis: History and Examination, Saunders

Fig. 8.35 Lentigo maligna melanoma.

Swash M, Hutchison's Clinical Methods, Saunders

Fig. 8.9 Subcutaneous cholesterol deposition on the medial aspect of the eyelids (xanthelasma).
Fig. 21.7 Sickle haemoglobin disease (peripheral blood).
Fig. 21.9 Trephine bone marrow biopsy.

Swash M and Glynn M, Hutchison's Clinical Methods, Saunders

Fig. 11.23 Herpes simplex (type I).

Townsend CM Jr et al, Sabiston Textbook of Surgery, Saunders

Fig. 32.6 Common physical findings during breast examination.
Fig. 32.7 Mammogram and ultrasound findings of breast disease.
Fig. 46.13 Plain abdominal radiographs of a patient with a complete small bowel obstruction.
Fig. 49.9 Closed hemorrhoidectomy. (By permission of Mayo Foundation.)
Fig. 70.7A and B. A, Plain chest radiograph of infant with pure esophageal atresia. B, Plain chest radiograph of infant with esophageal atresia and tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF).
Fig. 70.9 Plain abdominal radiograph demonstrating the typical double-bubble appearance of duodenal atresia.
Fig. 70.13 Hirschsprung's disease.
Fig. 70.14 The two major abdominal wall defects.

White GM and Cox NH, Diseases of the Skin, Mosby

Fig. 3.5 Atopic dermatitis, diffuse with accentuation in the folds.
Fig. 4.26a Psoriatic arthropathy affecting the terminal interphalangeal joint of the thumb and the proximal interphalangeal joint of the ring finger, in a patient with severe skin psoriasis.
Fig. 8.96 Gouty tophi on the ear.
Fig. 13.28 Malignant acanthosis nigricans in the axilla.
Fig. 28.30 Polymorphic light eruption on the legs.

Young B and Heath JW, Wheater's Functional Histology: A Text and Colour Atlas, Churchill Livingstone

Fig. 1.13A Lysosomes (a) EM x 27 000.
Fig. 2.7A Apoptosis in normal tissues H & E (a) x 300.
Fig. 4.14B Mast Cells (b) EM x 12 000.
Fig. 7.7A Nodes of Ranvier and Schmidt-Lanterman incisures (a) Teased preparation, Sudan black.
Fig. 8.4A Purkinje fibres (a) H &E/elastin x 150.
Fig. 8.23 Valve of a lymphatic vessel.
Fig. 11.8B Lymph node (b) H & E x 8.
Fig. 11.10 Lymphocyte domains in the lymph node H & E x 30.
Fig. 14.5 Gastro-oesophageal junction H & E x 40.
Fig. 14.13C Pyloric stomach (c) Immunoperoxidase for gastrin x 150.
Fig. 17.7A Thyroid Gland (b) Human, H & E x 480.
Fig. 17.8 Thyroid follicle (rat) EM x 6800.
Fig. 17.11A Adrenal gland (a) Azan x 12.
Fig. 18.21 Penile erectile tissue H & E x 30.
Fig. 19.16E Proliferative endometrium, Late Phase: (e) H & E x 100.
Fig. 19.16F Proliferative endometrium, Late Phase: (f) H & E x 200.
Fig. 19.34A Umbilical cord (a) H & E x 7.5.
Fig. 21.24B Cochlea (b) H & E x 96.

Yanoff M and Duker JS, Ophthalmology, Mosby

Fig. 37.1 Nuclear cataract.
Fig. 55.6 Acute bacterial conjunctivitis.
Fig. 113.1 Mild to moderate chronic hypertensive retinopathy.
Fig. 113.2 In this 15° view, note the arteriovenous crossing changes, presence of collateral vessels, and dilated capillary bed.
Fig. 113.3 A 60° view of the same patient as shown in Figure 113.2.
Fig.113.4 The right eye of the same patient as shown in Figures 113.2 and 113.3.
Fig 115.2 Ischemic central retinal vein obstruction.
Fig. 146.3 Bilateral leukokoria as a result of retinoblastoma.

Zipes DP et al, Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine, Saunders

Fig. 36.5 Brigham and Women's Hospital Emergency Department "Rule Out Myocardial Infarction (MI)" critical pathway.
Table 20.1 Contraindications to heart transplantation.
Table 36.2 Features associated with higher likelihood of coronary artery disease among patients resenting with symptoms suggestive of unstable angina.

Zipes DP et al, Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine, Saunders

Fig. 9.20 Marked left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) pattern with prominent precordial lead QRS voltages.
Fig. 53.2A Axial contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) scan showing a 6.6-cm abdominal aortic aneurysm (A) lined with mural thrombus (T).
Fig. 53.15 Chest radiograph of a patient with aortic dissection.

Non-book sources

Portis AJ and Sundaram CP, Diagnosis and initial management of kidney stones, Am Fam Physician 2001, 63, 1329-38, Table 4.
Sellman JS and Holman RL, Thromboembolism during pregnancy: Risks, challenges, and recommendations, Postgraduate Medicine Volume 108/4, September 15, 2000, Table 5.
Public Health Image Library (PHIL)
Image ID 2998 - Giemsa-stained smear of bronchoalveolar lavage specimen.
Image ID 2226 - Gram Stain.